- Generate A Static Openvpn Key
- Openvpn Generate Static Key
- What Is Generate A Static Openvpn Key Password
- What Is Generate A Static Openvpn Keyboard
Easy Windows Guide. This page contains a no-frills guide to getting OpenVPN up and running on a Windows server and client(s). For a more detailed understanding of setting up OpenVPN and its advanced features, see the HOWTO page. Table of contents.
- 1Static Key VPN
- 1.1On The Server
- 1.3Testing the Static VPN
- 1.5More Gotchas
- 1.6Testing Again
This is the simplest setup for a VPN configuration for small numbers of users and point-to-point VPN. There are more scalable options for larger OpenVPN networks.
I know I can generate an OpenVPN static key by 'openvpn -genkey -secret myfile.key'. In python, I am currently using a shell call to generate a key, open the 'myfile.key' and read it back in. It would be much cleaner if I could do it without the shell call. Sep 28, 2016 Microsoft Windows does not come with any OpenVPN server or client software. So if you will need to install and configure an OpenVPN Windows client on your PC if you wish to set up an OpenVPN connection to an Opengear console server within your remote data centre. First, one one of the systems generate the key using the operational command generate openvpn key. This will generate a key with the name provided in the /config/auth/ directory. Once generated, you will need to copy this key to the remote router. In our example, we used the filename openvpn-1.key which we will reference in our.
On The Server
Create OpenVPN Server Key
First, generate a key on the OpenVPN server:
Now copy that VPN file over a secure medium onto the computer you'll use as the OpenVPN client.
Server Config File
Create a server config file:
This server file creates a device called tun (or tun0, or tun1, etc)
It sets up an IP address of 10.8.0.1, with a peer-to-peer IP address of 10.8.0.2 (that'll be our single client).
Finally, we point it to our static key.
Server Firewall Script
The server firewall script looks like the following:
The NAT rules allow traffic to get to the larger internet; the iptables rule came from here: https://openvpn.net/index.php/open-source/documentation/howto.html#redirect
(Plus more info here: https://community.openvpn.net/openvpn/wiki/NatHack - it basically means, rewrite any VPN traffic to the OpenVPN server so that it looks like it natively came from the OpenVPN server.)
Then restart the networking service on the OpenVPN server machine:
Forward Packets on Server
Make sure you are forwarding packets:
This will ensure that any packet that the network interface receives is forwarded (specifically, forwarded to our tunnel device).
Start OpenVPN Server
Now start the OpenVPN server daemon on the OpenVPN server:
Client Config File
On the client, create your client config file:
Here we're specifying the location of our OpenVPN server with the IP address
Then we're specifying a tunnel device with
Then an IP of 10.8.0.2 with a peer-to-peer connection at 10.8.0.1 with
Then the static server key,
redirect-gatway def1 which replaces the gateway router on our machine, so that all traffic, including DNS, will go through our VPN connection.
Client Firewall Script
The following are the firewall tables used by OpenVPN, broken down to explain them:
Flush the existing rules in the ip tables:
Now set default policies for types of packets:
Accept packets belonging to accepted connections:
Respond to pings (that's what the 8 means):
Open port 1194 for OpenVPN:
All outbound packets are OK:
Now print the rules:
Azure generate storage account key number. See https://forums.openvpn.net/topic7722.html for other info.
Now we've got the firewall open on the server, and open on the client. We've got the OpenVPN daemon running on the server, and all that's left is the client. Let's connect:
Final Client Script
Testing the Static VPN
Wireshark and Ping (Local)
You can test to make sure that 10.8.0.1 and 10.8.0.2 can see each other on the virtual private network by pinging one from the other.
For example, from the client (10.8.0.2), we can run ping, and specify that ping should use our tunnel device:
Now open wireshark and begin a packet capture on the same tun0 interface. You should see the ping and response packets from Wireshark:
Wireshark and Ping (Remote)
Now you can test all of those firewall rules we set for the OpenVPN server, that set rules for forwarding packets from the tunnel to the ethernet and to the internet at large:
Make sure you can see the ping and response in Wireshark:
This ping and response is happening over the OpenVPN tunnel we created, and that tunnel traffic is then being forwarded to the OpenVPN server's network device.
Wireshark and Browser
Now test out that the
redirect-gatway directive in our config file is actually redirecting traffic as expected. Here, we visit Yahoo.com from the OpenVPN client, and check out the packet capture of the tunnel device while we do that. We should see all of our traffic passing through the OpenVPN tunnel:
Further up there were several DNS packets for yahoo.com, and we can see all of the packet traffic from Yahoo to the OpenVPN client for loading the page.
Wireshark and SSH
One more test, just to make sure that the
redirect-gateway directive really redirects ALL traffic, and not just SOME traffic. Let's SSH to a remote machine, and verify that we can do that. From the OpenVPN client, we run Wireshark. We should see SSH traffic:
Sure enough, there it is! Hooray!
OpenVPN and WhatIsMyIP.com
I spent a long time trying to diagnose why, every time I used Google or WhatIsMyIp or a similar service to check my IP address from the OpenVPN client, it would always give the native IP address of the OpenVPN client, instead of the OpenVPN server's IP address (indicating that for some reason, the traffic to that site was passing through the regular network connection, which should not be allowed by the
I could see my virtual IP, 10.8.0.2. I could also see a native IP, for my ethernet connection (which is how I'm connected to the OopenVPN server). My browser was using the VPN tunnel, because when I was browsing the web I would see corresponding HTTP traffic passing through the tun0 tunnel device, and encrypted TCP data passing through the eth0 device.
So what's going on here?
Turns out, OpenVPN doesn't tunnel your IPv6 traffic by default. Because whatismyip.com is capable of using IPv6, the client connects to whatismyip.com via IPv6, 'in the clear' - not through the OpenVPN.
OpenVPN does not create a tunnel for IPv6 traffic by default.
I ran a quick test to uncover this fact. First, I visited a few websites while sniffing the tunnel device with Wireshark. I saw some traffic, basically what I excpected. But then I did the same thing while sniffing the ethernet device.
I visited Yahoo.com and saw TCP packets going between my local computer's IPv6 address and some other IPv6 address:
When I did a reverse whois with the IPv6 address, it was the site I was visiting - Yahoo.com.
In other words, traffic was passing directly from my computer to the sites I was visiting, via IPv6. Even though it was encrypted, it was not going through OpenVPN.
Server Solution: Enable IPv6 on OpenVPN
Not clear whether this works for both IPv4 and IPv6, or just IPv6.
Client Solution 1: Disable IPv6 Temporarily
To temporarily disable IPv6:
To temporarily re-enable IPv6:
Note that you should be wary of using this as a temporary solution - as soon as you forget to do it, your VPN session is as good as useless.
Client Solution 2: Disable IPv6 with Sysctl
You can disable IPv6 temporarily using sysctl.
/etc/sysctl.conf and add:
and remove your loopback IPv6 interface by commenting out this line from
/etc/hosts (if relevant):
You will need to reboot.
Client Solution 3: Disable IPv6 in the Kernel
Edit your boot loader line, to include the flag
ipv6.disable=1, by editing
/etc/default/grub to include the extra portion:
You will need to restart the client machine. Now the client machine will not use IPv6, and all IPv4 traffic is routed through OpenVPN.
DNS Not Responding
One other problem I ran into was, all my web traffic was loading really, really slowly. When I looked at it with Wireshark, I saw that all my DNS lookups were being denied.
Turns out, the DNS servers that my computer was using were automatically being grabbed from my wireless router, and populated on boot. And those DNS servers were coming from my ISP - Comcast - whose DNS servers are specifically for Comcast customers, and not for random arbitrary people.
Soooo, the good news was, my DNS queries were not coming from my native IP address, but were properly being sent through the VPN tunnel. Yay! The problem was, those DNS queries were being sent to Comcast's DNS servers, from the endpoint of the VPN tunnel, which was not using a Comcast ISP. So the DNS queries failed, because of where they were coming from.
The solution? Change my DNS servers to something different, by changing
If you want DNS servers controlled by The Goog, a large corporation that CLAIMS they don't keep DNS lookups, but probably do, you can add the following to your resolv.conf file:
This is a good 'test' DNS server, as it is 'always on' and can be used from just about anywhere (but not China).
Wikileaks has a great list of more trustworthy sources of DNS lookups: https://wikileaks.org/wiki/Alternative_DNS
Once you get OpenVPN working, you can verify it is working.
Fire up Wireshark.
If you monitor the tunnel device
tun0 you'll be able to see all of the traffic to and from the OpenVPN server in the clear. This will be either TCP, HTTP, or HTTPS traffic, as well as DNS queries. The tunnel device is being encrypted before it is sent out over the ethernet connection, and is decrypted at the other end.
If you monitor the ethernet device
eth0 you'll ONLY see encrypted OpenVPN traffic - UDP traffic on port 1194. Traffic passing through the tunnel, which appears in the clear to us when monitoring the tunnel device, is being encrypted before it is sent out over the ethernet device. By the time the packets get to the ethernet device, they're OpenVPN or TCP packets that are being passed back and forth between two and only two machines: the OpenVPN client and the OpenVPN server. No information about the sites visited, the DNS queries sent, the servers used, etc., can be seen by someone sniffing the ethernet connection.
You can view the protocols of the packets you've listened to by clicking Statistics > Protocol Hierarchy.
Depending on your port configuration, you'll see different things.
Using a stock OpenVPN configuration, and sniffing the ethernet connection eth0, I see lots of OpenVPN UDP traffic on port 1198:
If you use an OpenVPN server connection on a direct port, like port 80, the traffic will show up in Wireshark slightly differently. Instead of being UDP packet traffic on port 1198, which is easily recognized as OpenVPN traffic, the traffic will actually be TCP packets on port 80. In this case, the Wireshark Protocol Hierarchy report will look slightly different:
No matter what, at the end of the day, if your OpenVPN connection is working, you should see something like this: two computers, passing a lot of traffic back and forth, in some kind of encrypted protocol. You can run Wireshark on your own ethernet device while generating some web traffic over the VPN, and run a Protocol Hierarchy analysis, or a Conversation analysis, and all of your web traffic should match the description above: TCP protocol, encrypted, and only traveling between your computer and the OpenVPN server. If you see any DNS queries with websites you're visiting, or if you see IPV6 traffic bypassing the OpenVPN and revealing your native IP address to the world, review the steps above, and:
- Turn on
redirect-gateway def1in your OpenVPN client configuration to route ALL of your traffic through OpenVPN
- Turn off IPv6 with
sysctl -w net.ipv6.conf.all.disable_ipv6=1to prevent IPv6 bypassing OpenVPN
We covered the setup of a static key, single-user OpenVPN server running on a remote machine. We covered the OpenVPN installation process, then covered the firewall rules required to run OpenVPN clients and servers, then covered the OpenVPN configuration options that need to be set.
We then showed how to use Wireshark to debug the OpenVPN tunnel and make sure it works properly.
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Using pfSense® software, connecting two sites using OpenVPN is very simple. Oneside is configured as a client, and the other as a server. OpenVPN in shared keymode is the recommend method for site to site connections, unless there are ahalf dozen or more sites. For PKI and advanced options/configurations seeConfiguring a Site-to-Site PKI (SSL) OpenVPN Instance.
The instructions below are for basic site to site connectivity. For other modessuch as SSL/TLS, or remote access, look in the OpenVPN sectionand the OpenVPN chapter of the pfSense Book.
Both IPsec and OpenVPN may be enabled/in use at the same time, however,not for the same subnets. Any IPsec tunnel that references the same pairof subnets configured for use in OpenVPN must be disabled. IPsec andOpenVPN do not conflict otherwise.
The way OpenVPN works is that one end of the tunnel needs to be the“server” and the other the “client”, it does not matter which, though ifthere is more than one remote site, the main “hub” site should be theserver. If one site has a dynamic IP address and the other has a staticIP address, then the static IP address end should be the server.
For more than 6 site to site connections, SSL/TLS (PKI)can be a better fit for ease of management. Both methods work and require a fairamount of configuration on the server for each site, but there is lower overheadwith SSL/TLS since it runs a single server process.
A firewall rule must be created on the Server to allow traffic throughto the interface and port where the server is running, otherwise thetraffic will be blocked and the VPN will fail to connect. To allow orfilter incoming traffic inside the VPN tunnel, add rules to theOpenVPN tab under Firewall > Rules.
Navigate to VPN > OpenVPN, on the Servers tab. Click to createa new OpenVPN server and use the following options:
Peer to Peer (Shared Key)
UDP - TCP is undesirable because every lost packet isretransmitted, and if TCP is used inside the tunnel it will beretransmitted anyway. This will slow down the VPN if there is a lot oflost traffic on the WAN connection. TCP is really only useful to bypassfirewalls, in which case the port should be set to
443 as almost noone blocks access to that port. The protocol must match on each side.
Whichever interface server will use for incoming connections.Typically WAN, but may be an OPT WAN.
The port this OpenVPN server will listen on.
1194 is thedefault OpenVPN port. Each server requires a unique port. Make surenot to use a port in use by another service otherwise problems canoccur. If using port
443, ensure the WebGUI is not running on thatport first.
A name for this VPN. Shows up in various places wherethe VPN can be selected from a list, such as Status > Services, orDiagnostics > Packet Capture.
The keys can be made in the GUI. Check Automaticallygenerate a shared key, and when the settings are saved, a key will begenerated. Then copy/paste the key into the client.
This setting must match on both sides. Any of the cryptooptions are fine, it depends on the user preference. For most hardware,aes-256-cbc is a good choice, see Cryptographic Accelerator Support.
If the device has hardware crypto support, choose it from thislist. For ALIX and many others, use BSD cryptodev engine to use supportedonboard devices.
The suggested default in the GUI of
10.0.8.0/24 issufficient, but any random unused network inside of the RFC1918 space isrecommended. For site-to-site shared key, only a /30 is used, not a /24, evenif /24 is specified.
Enter the remote (Client Side) LAN here. To access morethan one network, add them all here separated by a comma (e.g.
Set this if to compress data on the tunnel. If bulk data orencrypted protocols like https/ssh are used primarily, this may only addunnecessary overhead. Enabled with Adaptive Compression is agood compromise as it will periodically test the compression of data andenable/disable as needed when it can help.
Set the TOS IP header value of tunnel packets tomatch the encapsulated packet value. Useful for traffic shaping on theOpenVPN traffic itself, but it does expose some data about the contentsof the packet so it is a potential security risk.
Don’t forget to add a firewall rule on the WAN tabunder Firewall > Rules (or whichever interface the server is runningon) to allow traffic to reach the OpenVPN server’s IP and port where it islistening. Also don’t forget rules on the OpenVPN tab to allow trafficinside the tunnel.
Navigate to VPN > OpenVPN, on the Clients tab. Click to createa new OpenVPN client and use the following options:
Peer to Peer (Shared Key)
Match the setting from the server side.
Generate A Static Openvpn Key
Interface to use for outbound traffic. Typically WAN, but may bean OPT WAN.
Leave this blank for a random port. The port this OpenVPN clientwill use for its side (source port). Each process requires a unique port.Make sure not to use a port in use by another service otherwise problems canoccur. Leaving this box blank is best.
203.0.113.19) or FQDN (
The port used by the OpenVPN server.
A name for this VPN.
Copy/paste the key from the server.
Match the setting from the server side.
Hardware specific. See the same setting in the server section.
Match the setting from the server side.
Openvpn Generate Static Key
Enter the remote (Server Side) LAN here. To access morethan one network, add them all here separated by a comma (e.g.
Match the setting from the server side.
See the same setting in the server section.
What Is Generate A Static Openvpn Key Password
What Is Generate A Static Openvpn Keyboard
Don’t forget to add rules to Firewall > Rules on theOpenVPN tab to allow traffic inside the tunnel.