This guide will demonstrate the steps required to encrypt and decrypt files using OpenSSL on Mac OS X. The working assumption is that by demonstrating how to encrypt a file with your own public key, you'll also be able to encrypt a file you plan to send to somebody else using their private key, though you may wish to use this approach to keep archived data safe from prying eyes.
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Assuming you've already done the setup described later in this document, that id_rsa.pub.pcks8 is the public key you want to use, that id_rsa is the private key the recipient will use, and secret.txt is the data you want to transmit…
Sep 26, 2019 Generating an SSH key manually. Modified: 26 Sep 2019 21:20 UTC. Use these instructions to manually generate and upload an SSH key to the Triton Compute Service portal. This section shows you how to manually generate and upload an SSH key in both Mac OS X. The standard OpenSSH suite of tools contains the ssh-keygen utility, which is used to generate key pairs. Run it on your local computer to generate a 2048-bit RSA key pair, which is fine for most uses. May 28, 2006 Since Mac OS X is just like any other UNIX, this should be basic knowledge. Generating keys for the client (your Mac) This will generate a public/private key pair. Needless to say, the private key (/.ssh/idrsa) should be kept private at all times, and the public key. SiteGround uses key pairs for SSH authentication purposes, as opposed to plain username and password. More information on SSH keys is available here. You can generate an SSH key pair in Mac OS following these steps: Open up the Terminal by going to Applications - Utilities - Terminal In the terminal.
Mar 22, 2019 Generating a public/private rsa key pair. Enter the file in which you wish to save they key (i.e., /home/username/.ssh/idrsa): The prompt defaults to save the new key pair in the /home/username/.ssh/ directory and name it 'idrsa'. Unless you want to change the location or name of the file, just click Enter on your keyboard to continue.
OpenSSL makes it easy to encrypt/decrypt files using a passphrase. Unfortunately, pass phrases are usually 'terrible' and difficult to manage and distribute securely.
To Encrypt a File
You can add -base64 if you expect the context of the text may be subject to being 'visible' to people (e.g., you're printing the message on a pbulic forum). If you do, you'll need to add it to the decoding step as well. You can choose from several cypers but aes-256-cbc is reasonably fast, strong, and widely supported. Base64 will increase the size of the encrypted file by approximately 30%
To Decrypt a File
You will need to provide the same password used to encrypt the file. All that changes between the encrypt and decrypt phases is the input/output file and the addition of the -d flag. If you pass an incorrect password or cypher then an error will be displayed.
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Encrypting Files Using your RSA keys
RSA encryption can only work with very short sections of data (e.g. an SHA1 hash of a file, or a password) and cannot be used to encrypt a large file. The solution is to generate a strong random password, use that password to encrypt the file with AES-256 in CBC mode (as above), then encrypt that password with a public RSA key. The encrypted password will only decrypt with a matching public key, and the encrypted file will require the unique password encrypted in the by the RSA key.
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The copy of OpenSSL bundled with Mac OS X has several issues. Mac OS X 10.7 and earlier are not PCI compliant. It is best to replace it. See here for details: http://www.dctrwatson.com/2013/07/how-to-update-openssh-on-mac-os-x/
Generate Your Private/Public Key-pair
By default your private key will be stored in
- ~/.ssh/id_rsa : This is your private key and it must be kept secret
- ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub : This is your public key, you can share it (for example) with servers as an authorized key for your account.You can change the location of where you store your keys, but this location is typical. Typically you want to ensure the private key is chmod 600, andd the public key is chmod 644.
Generate a PKCS8 Version of Your Public Key
The default format of id_rsa.pub isn't particularly friendly. If you are going to public your key (for example) on your website so that other people can verify the authorship of files attributed to you then you'll want to distribute it in another format. I find it useful to keep a copy in my .ssh folder so I don't have to re-generate it, but you can store it anywhere you like.
Generate a One-Time-Use Password to Encrypt the File
The passwords used to encrypt files should be reasonably long 32+ characters, random, and never used twice. To do this we'll generate a random password which we will use to encrypt the file.
This will generate 192 bytes of random data which we will use as a key. If you think a person may need to view the contents of the key (e.g., they're going to display it on a terminal or copy/paste it between computers) then you should consider base-64 encoding it, however:
- The password will become approximately 30% longer (and there is a limit to the length of data we can RSA-encrypt using your public key
- The password will be 'padded' with '=' characters if it's not a multiple of 4 bytes.
A Note on Long Passwords
There is a limit to the maximum length of a message that can be encrypted using RSA public key encryption. If you want to use very long keys then you'll have to split it into several short messages, encrypt them independently, and then concatinate them into a single long string. Decrypting the password will require reversing the technique: splitting the file into smaller chuncks, decrypting them independently, and then concatinating those into the original password key file.
Encrypt the File Using the Generated Key
Now that you have a good random password, you can use that to AES encrypt a file as seen in the 'with passwords' section
Decrypting the file works the same way as the 'with passwords' section, except you'll have to pass the key.
Encrypt the Key Used to Encrypt the File
We used fast symetric encryption with a very strong password to encrypt the file to avoid limitations in how we can use asymetric encryption. Finally, we'll use asymetric encryption to encrypt the password. This solves the problem of 'how do I safely transmit the password for the encrypted file' problem. You can encrypt is using the recipients public key and they can decode it using their private key. Encrypt the password using a public key:
The recipient can decode the password using a matching private key:
Package the Encrypted File and Key
There are a number of ways to do this step, but typically you'll want just a single file you can send to the recipent to make transfer less of a pain. I'd recommend just making a tarball and delivering it through normal methods (email, sftp, dropbox, whatever). Though a secure method of exchange is obviously preferable, if you have to make the data public it should still be resistent to attempts to recover the information.
The file can be extracted in the usual way:
You may want to securely delete the unecrypted keyfile as the recipient will be able to decode it using their private key and you already have the unencrypted data.
Step 1: Verify that you have
If not, install
openssl using: Adobe cs3 master collection key generator download free.
If you are using Microsoft(r) Windows, checkout http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/openssl.htm for details about the
openssl package on Windows.
If you using Linux, you can use the default package manager to get the
openssl package installed on your box. For example:
Step 2: Create a RSA private key.
server.key is a PEM RSA private key. To know more about what is a PEM file and it’s significance, read What is a Pem file and how does it differ from other OpenSSL Generated Key File Formats? at serverfault.com.
Step 3: Create the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) utilizing the RSA private key we generated in the last step.
The ‘challenge password’ is used by the Certificate Authority (CA) to authenticate the certificate owner when they have to revoke the certificate. There is no way to revoke a Self-Signed Certificate via Certificate Revocation List (CRL) (refer: https://devcenter.heroku.com/articles/ssl-certificate-self#generate-private-key-and-certificate-signing-request]
As a result of executing the above command, you will find a file named
server.csr (‘csr’ stands for Certificate Signing Request) in the same directory.
Step 4: Generate a file named,
v3.ext with the below listed contents:
This step is required because when you load the certificate in the Chrome browser, it would display an error portrayed in the below screenshot.
DNS.1 value in
v3.ext file to be same as the
Common Name that you mentioned while generating the certificate signing request would resolve the error. Refer https://stackoverflow.com/questions/43665243/chrome-invalid-self-signed-ssl-cert-subject-alternative-name-missing for more details about the subject alternate name missing error and the solution.
- Create the SSL Certificate utilizing the CSR created in the last step.
The above command will use the Certificate Signing Request and the RSA Private Key that we generated as part of executing the previous steps and generate a Certificate file named,
server.crt (‘crt’ is an abbreviation of ‘Certificate’) and place it in the same directory.
Step 5: Import the newly generated certificate in your Keychain (Mac OSX only).
Since this is a self-signed certificate, the browser would display a warning mentioning that the certificate is self-signed and the website should not be trusted as portrayed in the below-listed screenshot captured on the Chrome browser.
Advanced hyperlink at the bottom of the warning page and click
Proceed to hyperlink.
The browser will allow you to proceed and open the homepage but will mark the site as
Not-Secure as portrayed in the image below.
To avoid this accepting the self-signed certificate everytime you restart chrome or restart your web server, follow the steps outlined at Google Chrome, Mac OS X and Self-Signed SSL Certificates to add the certificate to your Mac OSX Keychain. Restart Chrome.
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Other platforms like Microsoft(r) Windows and Linux have similar techniques to import a certificate into a browser. A quick Google(r) search should be able to provide you with the exact steps based on the browser that you use.
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Now Chrome should happily display the green ‘Secure’ icon against the URL when you navigate to your locally deployed website. Also, the
Security tab within the
Developer Tools should list the site as ‘Secure’ as portrayed in the screenshot below.
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