Creating and managing keys is an important part of the cryptographic process. Symmetric algorithms require the creation of a key and an initialization vector (IV). The key must be kept secret from anyone who should not decrypt your data. The IV does not have to be secret, but should be changed for each session. Asymmetric algorithms require the creation of a public key and a private key. The public key can be made public to anyone, while the private key must known only by the party who will decrypt the data encrypted with the public key. This section describes how to generate and manage keys for both symmetric and asymmetric algorithms.
There are many encryption algorithms for the public keys. The two main ones are the RSA system of cryptography and the Elliptic Curve Cryptography. We will focus on this last algorithm since it is the system which has been adopted by the Bitcoin Protocol.
PuTTY Key Generator is a dedicated key generator software for Windows. You can generate RSA key pair as well as DSA, ECDSA, ED25519, or SSH-1 keys using it. In order to create a pair of private and public keys, select key type as RSA (SSH1/SSH2), specify key size, and click on Generate button. There are many encryption algorithms for the public keys. The two main ones are the RSA system of cryptography and the Elliptic Curve Cryptography. We will focus on this last algorithm since it is the system which has been adopted by the Bitcoin Protocol. Each person or a party who desires to participate in communication using encryption needs to generate a pair of keys, namely public key and private key. The process followed in the generation of keys is described below − Generate the RSA modulus (n) Select two large primes, p and q. Calculate n=p.q. The elementary working of Public Key Cryptography is best explained with an example. The working below covers the making of simple keys and the encryption and decryption of a sample of plain text. By necessity, the example is greatly simplified. Basic Public Key Summary. In this example you will generate a public/private key pair for the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA). You will generate keys with a 1024-bit length. Generating a key pair requires several steps: Create a Key Pair Generator. The first step is to get a key-pair generator object for generating keys for the DSA signature algorithm. There is more than one public-key algorithm available. The most common are RSA and ECDSA, but others exist, notably DSA (otherwise known as DSS), the USA’s federal Digital Signature Standard. 1 Generating Keys.
The symmetric encryption classes supplied by the .NET Framework require a key and a new initialization vector (IV) to encrypt and decrypt data. Whenever you create a new instance of one of the managed symmetric cryptographic classes using the parameterless constructor, a new key and IV are automatically created. Anyone that you allow to decrypt your data must possess the same key and IV and use the same algorithm. Generally, a new key and IV should be created for every session, and neither the key nor IV should be stored for use in a later session.
To communicate a symmetric key and IV to a remote party, you would usually encrypt the symmetric key by using asymmetric encryption. Sending the key across an insecure network without encrypting it is unsafe, because anyone who intercepts the key and IV can then decrypt your data. For more information about exchanging data by using encryption, see Creating a Cryptographic Scheme.
The following example shows the creation of a new instance of the TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider class that implements the TripleDES algorithm.
When the previous code is executed, a new key and IV are generated and placed in the Key and IV properties, respectively.
Sometimes you might need to generate multiple keys. In this situation, you can create a new instance of a class that implements a symmetric algorithm and then create a new key and IV by calling the GenerateKey and GenerateIV methods. The following code example illustrates how to create new keys and IVs after a new instance of the symmetric cryptographic class has been made.
When the previous code is executed, a key and IV are generated when the new instance of TripleDESCryptoServiceProvider is made. Another key and IV are created when the GenerateKey and GenerateIV methods are called.
Best Algorithm To Generate Public Keys Without
The .NET Framework provides the RSACryptoServiceProvider and DSACryptoServiceProvider classes for asymmetric encryption. These classes create a public/private key pair when you use the parameterless constructor to create a new instance. Asymmetric keys can be either stored for use in multiple sessions or generated for one session only. While the public key can be made generally available, the private key should be closely guarded.
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A public/private key pair is generated whenever a new instance of an asymmetric algorithm class is created. After a new instance of the class is created, the key information can be extracted using one of two methods:
The ToXmlString method, which returns an XML representation of the key information.
The ExportParameters method, which returns an RSAParameters structure that holds the key information.
Both methods accept a Boolean value that indicates whether to return only the public key information or to return both the public-key and the private-key information. An RSACryptoServiceProvider class can be initialized to the value of an RSAParameters structure by using the ImportParameters method.
Asymmetric private keys should never be stored verbatim or in plain text on the local computer. If you need to store a private key, you should use a key container. For more on how to store a private key in a key container, see How to: Store Asymmetric Keys in a Key Container.
Public Key Encryption Algorithms Used
The following code example creates a new instance of the RSACryptoServiceProvider class, creating a public/private key pair, and saves the public key information to an RSAParameters structure.